The 1960’s were a golden age for oceanographers.
During the first half of the century, oceans witnessed a staggering rise in sea level, driven by human activities such as farming and mining.
During this period, researchers began to look at how much ice was covering the oceans.
In 1961, the United Nations launched the first international survey, which showed a significant increase in the size of the oceans, as sea levels increased by an average of 6 millimeters per year.
The study, however, failed to find evidence of an imminent sea level rise, because ice sheets, glaciers and other ice caps had remained largely ice-free.
This meant that sea level was not rising fast enough.
In the 1970s, oceanographers began to develop a new method for assessing sea level.
The new method relied on the buoyancy of the water, and also included the presence of satellites.
It also provided an unprecedented opportunity for researchers to study the oceans without relying on the same equipment as in the previous century.
The 1960s also marked the birth of the oceanographer.
In 1960, oceanographer Robert Pape published a landmark study of the Great Lakes in the United States, where he observed the collapse of the ice sheets in the early 1960s.
The result was a major scientific advance: He found that global sea levels were rising at a rate of roughly 4 millimeters a year.
In 1977, oceanographic research scientist John Matson and his colleagues began a long-term survey of the waters of the Atlantic Ocean.
The team used the buoyant buoyancy and the ability of ships to pass through the water to record sea level changes.
After surveying the entire Atlantic Ocean for decades, the team published a paper in the journal Science in 2008, which found that the oceans were rising by about 4 millimetres a year, a rate that was consistent with the rate at which global sea level is rising.
As sea level rose, scientists began to understand that the rate of sea level change was not slowing down, and that the Earth’s oceans are becoming more permeable.
Sea levels rose even faster in the past century, reaching an average rate of about 10 millimeters a year in the 1990s.
In fact, global sea-level rise accelerated between 2010 and 2012.
Although scientists have been able to measure sea level increase for a long time, it is now clear that the world’s oceans and other bodies of water are now more vulnerable to climate change than previously thought.
To date, the amount of ice on the ocean has decreased by more than 50 per cent.
The extent of sea-ice has also increased, from around 1 per cent of the surface to more than 25 per cent, according to the latest estimates from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), in the late 1960s, the global sea ice cover was only 0.2 per cent; by the end of the decade, the ice cover had grown to a record high of 9 per cent – about twice as much as was recorded during the early 1970s.
The extent of oceanic ice and the amount that floats on it have changed radically over the past two decades.
During that time, the average amount of water that floats in the ocean decreased by one-third, from 1.1 million square kilometres in 2010 to 1.0 million square km in 2015.
This has caused the ocean to become more permeated by the water it contains, which means that the deeper it is, the less water there is in the system.
According to climate scientist Peter Gleick, this is because sea levels have increased at the same time that the water is increasing.
However, a new study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on Friday (October 10) found that this sea level trend could reverse, and suggests that the ocean is becoming more ice-rich, not less.
“It looks like our ice is becoming thinner, and not as thick as the oceans might appear,” said lead author James Laughlin, a marine scientist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR).
“We think that the ice is melting more slowly than we thought.”
“If we think of ice as a thin, sticky layer that floats, we might think that we have lost some thickness,” he said.
“But we’re not losing anything.”
A recent study published by NOAA scientists in the Geophysical Research Letters journal found that a warmer world is expected to increase the amount and extent of water in the Earths oceans.
“The amount of freshwater is going to increase because the ocean will be more permeible,” said study author David M. Johnson, a professor of marine science at NCAR.
“In addition, the warmer climate will increase the rate and extent that we can absorb carbon dioxide.”
“The amount and magnitude of carbon that we are absorbing is changing and will continue to change,” Johnson said.
It is not just the water